War Is Still a Racket
By Ed Rippy, 5/16/03
In the early 1930s Major General Smedley Butler, retired from thirty-three years in the US Marine Corps, had a fit of realization and then a fit of honesty. He began making speeches and published a book, all telling a fundamental, ugly, and timeless truth: War Is A Racket.1 Seventy years later, The Racket is going stronger than ever. It is not so much a conspiracy as a combination political philosophy and business model.
"I helped make Mexico, especially Tampico, safe for American oil interests in 1914. I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City Bank boys to collect revenues in," confessed Butler. The National City Bank's descendent, Citigroup, is now the biggest bank in the world -- and the eleventh biggest corporation2 -- and collects revenues in over a hundred "decent places" including Angola, Vietnam, Panama, Saudi Arabia, and Colombia3 -- all of which (like most of the world) have had Butler's successors on the scene to keep them "decent."
"I helped purify Nicaragua for the international banking house of Brown Brothers in 1909-1912," Butler relates, and within years Brown Brothers, by then merged with the Harriman Co., paid Hitler's Wehrmacht to "purify" Europe. Prescott Bush, later a US Senator and then both father and grandfather of US Presidents, ran the New York office of this piece of The Racket.4
"In China I helped to see to it that Standard Oil went its way unmolested." Later on, the Chinese "molested" Standard Oil, but now they are finding their place in The Racket: the Chinese Academy of Sciences owns part of a company which is in a consortium which has bought the manufacturer of critical parts for US "precision" weapons -- and is relocating the factory to China.5
The Racket works in many ways. First it first it funnels money from taxpayers and consumers to banks and big business. Butler gives some examples from World War I (the numbers have been adjusted for inflation using the US Bureau of Labor Statistics calculator):6
"Take our friends the du Ponts, the [gun]powder people . . . . How did they do in the war?. . . Eight hundred and twelve million dollars a year profit we find! Nearly ten times that of normal times. . . .
"[Bethlehem Steel's] 1910-1914 yearly earnings averaged $84,000,000. . . . Then came the war. . . . [T]heir 1914-1918 average was $686,000,000 a year!. . .
"Or, let's take United States Steel. The normal earnings during the five-year period prior to the war were $1,470,000,000 a year. Not bad. Then along came the war and up went the profits. The average yearly profit for the period 1914-1918 was $3,360,000,000. Not bad."
But "If anyone had the cream of the profits it was the bankers. Being partnerships rather than incorporated organizations, they do not have to report to stockholders. . . . those little secrets never become public. . . ."
These days, with tens of billions of dollars in emergency appropriations for the Afghan War, a yearly military budget close to $400 billion, and as-yet-uncounted billions for the recent "liberation" of Iraq, US military suppliers are still doing well. Kellogg, Brown, and Root, wholly owned by Dick Cheney's old company Halliburton, is building tank transporters for the British Army,7 built the cells for the "detainees" from Afghanistan at Guantanamo Naval Station in Cuba, feeds US troops in Uzbekistan,8 and supplies US military operations in Afghanistan, Djibouti, Georgia, Jordan, Uzbekistan, Kuwait, and Turkey.9 Halliburton, on Cheney's watch, did over $20 million worth of business with Iraq while still supplying the US, which was loudest in supporting the sanctions against Iraq. Brown and Root has paid millions of dollars in fines for illegally selling to Libya, another country the US has outlawed trade with, allegedly for sponsoring terrorism.10 To be fair, Cheney has sold his Halliburton stock, so he doesn't profit overtly from its business, but it is unlikely that the company will forget who its friends are.11
The Carlyle Group, a private investment firm which owns so many "defense" companies that it's one of the top US military contractors, made $237 million in one day selling shares in one of its holdings which was poised to cash in on Congress's post-9-11 largesse. With former President Bush, former "Defense" Secretary Carlucci, former Secretary of State Baker, and other leading Racketeers on the payroll, Carlyle knows the War Racket inside and out.12 Savvy investors, including some of the bin Laden family, have found Carlyle attractive.13
But it would be unfair to pick solely on Cheney, Halliburton, or Republicans. Shareholders are suing General Electric, ConocoPhillips, and, yes, Halliburton, for doing business with proscribed, "terrorist-sponsoring" states;14 and John Deutch, Director of Central Intelligence during a Democratic administration, sits on the board of Schlumberger, the US's second largest oil-services company, also doing business with Iraq as of late 2000.15 Northrop Grumman, having concluded that "total peace would not prevail in our time," expects "at least double digit earnings growth" for years; it just bought TRW and Litton Industries, making it the third largest US military supplier.16 Its stock reached a three-year high two days after the US started bombing Afghanistan.17
Other US merchants of death are also doing well. Raytheon is selling cruise missiles right and left. Lockheed Martin got $200 billion to build the Joint Strike Fighter, a multipurpose combat jet. Boeing is making over 1,000 precision-guidance kits -- with movable tailfins -- to make US bombs "smart." The Racketeers are doing so well that the American Stock Exchange, one of their principle scoreboards, has set up a "Defense Index" of fifteen companies which make money off of war -- sort of a Dow-Jones of death to measure their success in transmuting human blood into revenue.18
But it would also be unfair to pick solely on the US, although its enforcement arm has by far the most muscle; The Racket is international. During the Iran-Iraq War, US, Soviet, Middle Eastern, and European Racketeers supplied both sides.19 In one sweaty, incestuous tangle of corporate and governmental limbs, Israeli Racketeers traded weapons they had gotten from US Racketeers for oil from Iranian Racketeers. They couldn't be seen in bed together, though, so they hired Swiss Racketeers to broker the deal. No doubt they had a fun and lucrative romp; but the wet spot they left behind them was a spreading pool of other people's blood.20 The "Afghan Freedom Fighters" who dealt the Soviet Racket a mortal blow were mainly a joint production of US, Saudi, Pakistani, and Chinese Racketeers, although others had pieces of the action too.21 The US-sponsored proxy war in Nicaragua drew on Saudi,22 Israeli, Panamanian, Czech, and Costa Rican money, weapons, and talents -- to name only a few.23 For much of the shady dealing and financing, they used a bank incorporated in Luxembourg by Pakistanis, financed by Arabs, and headquartered in London.24
The instructive General Butler continues:
"Out of war nations acquire additional territory, if they are victorious. They just take it. This newly acquired territory promptly is exploited by the few -- the selfsame few who wrung dollars out of blood in the war."
US and British Racketeers, having just taken over Iraq, are taking its oil25 and its bank deposits to pay themselves for rebuilding what they have destroyed (our old acquaintance Citigroup has been holding some of the money since a 1990 decree of Bush Sr.;26 but then so has Deutsche Bank, German Racketeers' traditional "armaments bank,"27 which has been involved with Middle East oil since before World War I.28) Soon after the "liberation" of Afghanistan, which the Clinton and Bush Administrations had planned years before the World Trade Center attacks,29 Unocal signed a deal with the new government to build a pipeline across Afghanistan to the Arabian Sea.30 (Unocal had been planning the pipeline since 1997, but as one of their vice-presidents explained to Congress, the Taliban were in the way.31)
War is such a good racket that the Racketeers have no plans to stop it anytime soon: as one major wrote in the journal of the Army War College,
"We have entered an age of constant conflict.... There will be no peace. At any given moment for the rest of our lifetimes, there will be multiple conflicts in mutating forms around the globe..... The de facto role of the US armed forces will be to keep the world safe for our economy and open to our cultural assault. To those ends, we will do a fair amount of killing."32 As the bombs started falling on Afghanistan, Vice-President Cheney said that the "War on Terrorism" "may never end. At least, not in out lifetime."33 More than a year later, on an aircraft carrier returning to San Diego after helping "liberate" Iraq, President Bush said, "The war on terror is not over."34
War has been such a swell racket that it has spawned several subsidiaries: the Oil Racket, the Drug Racket, the Terrorism Racket, and the hybrid War-On-Drugs and War-On-Terrorism Rackets.
The Oil Racket began when the Allies broke the World War I stalemate of trench warfare with tanks, gasoline-driven transport, and air power. The oil-burning British Fleet out-maneuvered the coal-burning German Fleet in the North Sea. It was clear that to stand a chance in the War Racket you had to be a player in the Oil Racket. The powers began jockeying for all the oil they could control, mostly in the Middle East.35 A long series of coups, wars, and other crises ensued as different Racketeers fought over the juice that drove their economies, and more important, their war machines. Of course, the banks and weapons companies cashed in on all this action. During World War II the King of Saudi Arabia was an ardent supporter of Hitler but took protection money from Roosevelt to keep US oil rigs -- and their oil -- from the Axis.36 After the war, Roosevelt met the King and cut a secret deal trading US protection of the Saud dynasty's throne for privileged access to its oil.37 (The "fundamentalist Muslims" so important for the Terrorism Racket take their inspiration from a right-wing sect allied with this dynasty.38)
Two main features of the Oil Racket since the latter Twentieth Century are that most or all oil producers have demanded US dollars in payment (helping US banks and importers), and that oil-rich governments (especially Saudi Arabia's) quietly kicked much of the loot back to the US Treasury (in loans) and weapons companies (in purchases).39 They also kept most of their leftover money in US banks40 (this is how Citigroup et al. got their hands on the Iraqi money the elder President Bush froze in 1990). The Oil Racket is so blatantly obvious that an advisor to Tony Blair admitted that the US and UK took over Iraq for its oil.41 Cashing in on rising demand (to fuel the war machine) and rising prices (as the military demand bid them up), ExxonMobil, BP, and Shell posted record profits for the quarter -- double or triple the previous quarter.42
The Drug Racket -- at least in its modern, globalized form -- began in the late 1940s when the CIA enlisted the Sicilian Mafia and Corsican gangsters to fight leftists in Italy and France; in return, it allowed them to rebuild their heroin network (it turned the Corsican operation over to French intelligence in the mid-1950s). Later, as US Racketeers took Southeast Asia over from French Racketeers, they inherited their opium smuggling networks and built them into a heroin ring which financed a covert proxy war against Communist China.43 In the mid-1980s, US "clandestine services" took over the South American cocaine trade to finance their proxy war in Nicaragua (and later in Colombia) and grew it into such a big racket that the central banks of Bolivia,44 Colombia, and Peru45 can't repay their dollar-denominated loans to US banks without the drug money. (The CIA actually admitted that it protected its allies' drug running in Central America.46) At about the same time they did the same thing with Afghanistan's opium, and now Pakistan's central bank is thoroughly hooked on heroin dollars.47 And so on. Such countries are war-torn and, due to years of the World Bank's "structural adjustment policies," many have so much of their land devoted to export crops that they can't grow their own food -- so without foreign currency, the people starve. This, along with their covert armies, is how the really big Racketeers buy and sell governments.
The Terrorism Racket hit the big time after US, Saudi, and Pakistani Racketeers decided to make trouble for the Soviets in Afghanistan. They started giving secret aid to enemies of the socialist Afghan government, and the Soviets invaded,48 beginning a long and bloody war which hastened the collapse of the Soviet Union. In the process they built up the Afghan Drug Racket until it supplied about two-thirds of the world's heroin.49 They set up Islamic "religious schools" teaching an extremist doctrine similar to that of the sect allied with the Saudi monarchy50 and gave their "best" students weapons training.51 Osama bin Laden was a top recruiter for this project, rounding up footloose young men in the Middle East and sending them to the US for special training before they went to Afghanistan.52
After the fall of the Soviet Union leading US and Saudi Racketeers met with others several times to decide what to do with the Mujahedin and their gun and drug rings. While the more cautious ones wanted to disband them, others refused to give up such useful arrangements.53 As a former CIA analyst explained, the same policies that helped bring down the Soviet Union are still useful to curb residual Russian and emerging Chinese influence in Central Asia.54 But they are useful elsewhere as well: various Mujahedin groups resettled in places like Chechnya,55 the Philippines, and Sudan.56 Al Qaeda, in concert with US and British forces, helped train Bosnian Muslims and the KLA, moving heroin to pay the bills.57 Although the Saudi government has officially expelled Osama bin Laden, and his family has officially disowned him, there are persistent reports that Prince Turki, long head of Saudi intelligence and now Ambassador to the US, remains in close contact with him. Further, the royal family continues to support his businesses, and his own family manages to stay in touch surreptitiously.58 The French newspaper Le Figaro reported that a high-level CIA officer, as well as many of Osama's relatives, visited him while he was having his kidneys treated at the US hospital in Dubai in July 2001.59 As late as 1997 the US National Security Agency was bragging of intercepting his phone calls to his mother.60 His brothers still run banks and other companies connected with terrorists,61 and al Qaeda troops protect Western oil pipelines in war-torn areas.62
Terrorist attacks against the US can be helpful to US Racketeers: a former bioweapons director observed that the 2001 anthrax attacks weren't all bad, since they led to a $6 billion increase in the biowarfare budget. The anthrax strain originally came from a US military laboratory, and only such laboratories know how to make it as fine and fluffy as the anthrax in the mailings.63
The War Racket and the Drug Racket combine to form the War-on-Drugs Racket, by which the Racketeers get more military and police power by pinning their own drug racket on their enemy du jour. There are many examples: Reagan brandished pictures of "Sandinista narco-traffickers" which actually showed Medellin Cartel members who had (until then) been protected by the CIA since their profits benefited the Contras. Even though the DEA didn't buy the "Sandinista" story, it led to a secret Presidential National Security Decision Directive authorizing increased military and intelligence forces to fight the "Drug War."64 More recently, the Clinton and Bush Administrations have been doing the same thing with the FARC in Colombia, branding it a "narco-guerrilla" army and increasing "counternarcotics" aid to the Colombian military.65 According to the Colombian government, the FARC does control about 2.5 percent of Colombia's cocaine exports; right-wing paramilitary groups, in close alliance with the army which is getting the "counternarcotics" aid, control about 40 percent.66 Of course, the "War on Drugs" serves to increase police powers in the US, too.
The latest model is the War-on-Terrorism Racket, unveiled after the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. It has major advantages: it promises to be endless, the "enemy" can be just about anywhere, and it has proved even better than the War-on-Drugs Racket for increasing US police powers. So far it has "justified" major military actions in Afghanistan and Iraq, more US troops and "advisors" from Uzbekistan67 to the Philippines,68 the "PATRIOT" Act (with a sequel in the works at this writing), and the Department of "Homeland Security."
But most people don't want war, so the Racketeers often have to stir it up. In 1939 German officers dressed an unknown prisoner up in a Polish Army uniform, staged a Polish attack on a German radio station, and invaded Poland the next day.69 In 1931 Japanese soldiers bombed the South Manchurian Railway (which Japan controlled), blamed China for the attack, and promptly invaded.70 Ten years later the US Government cut off Japan's oil supplies, steel, and credit while leaving the Pacific Fleet exposed in Hawaii. As expected, Japan responded by going to war with the US. They kicked it off with a "surprise" attack on Pearl Harbor, but Naval Intelligence had broken Japan's military codes and tracked Japanese warships all the way there. The Washington brass hobbled the Pacific Fleet commander's reconnaissance efforts, didn't tell him of the attack force bearing down on him, and told him to prepare for propaganda and sabotage, not an air attack.71 (This is not to say that the Roosevelt Administration was running this racket; other players may have forced his hand. FDR knew that Hitler was planning to attack the US when he had bombers with enough range. He had troubles at home too: US Nazi supporters planned a military coup against FDR and approached General Butler to spearhead it, but he blew the whistle and the plan fizzled.72) The Tonkin Gulf "incident" (which followed a series of covert US-led commando raids into North Vietnam73) also comes to mind. It is a well-established technique. As Hermann Goering put it, "Naturally, the common people don't want war. . . . [But] it is always a simple matter to drag the people along. . . . All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked, and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same in any country."74 Many signs suggest that the September 11 attacks were no exception to this pattern.
In recent years leading US Racketeers have fretted that the people of the US don't understand their "global responsibilities," which boil down to making sure that they (US Racketeers and their allies) run the world. Without US "primacy," they say, the world must sink into anarchy and economic depression. Zbigniew Brzezinski, President Carter's National Security Advisor and still a professor at Johns Hopkins University, wrote in 1997 that to save the world from this fate the US must control Eurasia, and to do that it must control Central Asia. He noted, however, that the US only rose to the challenge of ending World War II after the shock of Pearl Harbor.75 The Project for the New American Century, whose statement of principle boasts the signatures of Dick Cheney, Don Rumsfeld, Jeb Bush, Steve Forbes, William Bennett, Paul Wolfowitz, and other luminaries of the US right, echoed Brezinski's lament that the US people lack the resolve to Keep the World Safe for Democracy. The Project called for a return to the Reagan years of high "defense" spending to support US "constabulary" actions all over the world. Its monograph Rebuilding America's Defenses admitted that the "transformation" it so earnestly sought would be very slow indeed without something equivalent to the attack on Pearl Harbor.76
The Clinton Administration drew up plans for a war on al Qaeda in Afghanistan, but didn't get them finished until he was on his way out, so he handed them over to Bush's people. They rewrote the plans for a much larger war, and these modified plans hit Bush's desk in early September 2001.77 Meanwhile (in July), retired US diplomats told their Russian and Pakistani counterparts in informal meetings that the US was considering the "military option" in Afghanistan and that bombs might be falling by the middle of that October78 (they were pretty close: it turned out to be October 7).
Although the FBI has known since 1995 that plans to fly hijacked airliners into important US buildings were afoot,79 the Clinton and, especially, the Bush White Houses reined in rank-and-file agents who wanted to investigate a Virginia-based Muslim charity run by relatives of Osama bin Laden. Despite information from the governments of India and the Philippines that this charity had links to terrorists, Bush's men told the FBI to shut down investigations which might reveal wrongdoing by the extended Saudi royal family or any of its cronies.80 Agents had Zacarias Moussaoui, the accused "20th hijacker" who missed the boat, in jail three weeks before the attacks, but couldn't get permission to search his computer's hard drive. France's intelligence service had told them that Moussaoui had close links to al Qaeda, and an FBI agent in Phoenix had sent a warning that Middle Eastern extremists were attending US flight schools. The suits in Washington throttled the investigation and intimidated the agents.81 John O'Neill quit his job as the FBI's counter-terrorism chief because he was so frustrated; he became head of security for the World Trade Center and died there in the flames and rubble.82
According to witnesses, FBI agents, accompanied by Florida Governor Jeb Bush, took all of the records from the Florida flight school which trained Mohamed Atta to Washington, DC, where they remain hidden.83 The school, along with another at the same airport, trained at least eight of the accused hijackers, including three of the accused pilots.84 The schools' owner was involved in government-protected heroin smuggling, and supplied Atta and his buddies with all the cocaine they could toot.85 Atta, his girlfriend (a lingerie model for an outcall escort service), and another woman had at least one nonstop three-day party flowing with drugs and booze.86 (Who says Islamic fundamentalists can't have a little fun?) A local law enforcement official says that US covert operatives have used the airport -- which also houses maintenance facilities for a CIA-controlled airline servicing the Caribbean drug racket -- for decades.87 Although numerous witnesses place Atta in Florida months before the FBI says he entered the country, agents have been telling them to keep their mouths shut.88 Atta received $100,000 by wire transfer from Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) organization, the CIA's prime contractor for the 1980s war in Afghanistan, shortly before the 9-11 attacks. The chief of the ISI was in a breakfast meeting with the heads of both the House and Senate intelligence committees on September 11 and managed Pakistan's support of the ensuing US-led war until it became public that he had ordered the money wired to Atta, and he quietly retired.89
Warnings of terrorist attacks came from at least a dozen countries. The British,90 Jordanians91 and Russians92 each sent two. Some were vague but between them they mentioned the Pentagon, important symbols of US power, suicide hijackings, and the approximate time frame.93 Even the CIA director told Congress shortly before the 9-11 attacks that something like them could happen.94 (But if he was part of a conspiracy, why would he do that? Many of the "hijackers" had clear CIA links, but if "the CIA" did it, its director was merely playing for effect. Perhaps "national governments stood on the sidelines while bigger operators arranged the world's affairs," as a US Department of Justice lawyer summed up the way the Racketeers rescued many of their Nazi industrial, political, and military partners after the war.95 Before 9-11, John Ashcroft,96 George Schulz, Donald Rumsfeld, and Dick Cheney quit flying on commercial airliners due to a "security alert,"97 Willie Brown received warnings not to fly,98 and a group of high-ranking Pentagon officials canceled their travel plans without explanation.99
Butler, in the 'thirties, could hardly imagine the high-tech, networked "battlespace" his successors kill and get killed in today, but he understood the basic principle very well. War is still a racket, and any sane person can only echo his final sentence:
TO HELL WITH WAR!!
Endnotes (all links were good on 5/20/03):1. Maj. Gen. Smedley Butler, USMC (ret.). War is A Racket. Speech before the National Press Club, 1933; War Is A Racket. NY: Round Table Press, 1935.
2. Fortune 500 and Global 500 lists.
4. Webster G. Tarpley and Anton Chaitkin (1991). George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography.
5. Scott L. Wheeler, "Missile technology sent to China," Insight Magazine 2/5/03.
7. Hallibuton, Heavy Equipment Transporters - UK MoD.
8. Jeff Gerth and John Van Natta, "In Tough Times, a Company Finds Profits in Terror War," New York Times 7/13/02.
9. Pratap Chatterjee, "Halliburton Makes a Killing on Iraq War," CorpWatch 3/20/03.
10. Martin A. Lee, "The Campaign Issue that Wasn't -- Cheney's Oil Company in Shady Deals with Iraq," San Francisco Bay Guardian 11/13/00.
11. Gerth and Van Natta, In Tough Times.
12. Mark Fineman, "Arms Buildup Enriches Firm Staffed by Big Guns," The LA Times 1/10/02.
13. Kurt Eichenwald, "Bin Laden Family Liquidates Holdings With Carlyle Group," NY Times 10/26/01.
14. "Halliburton, GE, Conoco Accused of Terrorist Ties," FinancialWire 2/11/03.
15. Lee, The Campaign Issue that Wasn't.
16. "US defence giant predicts profits boom," BBC News 7/22/02.
17. Frida Berrigan, THE WAR PROFITEERS: HOW ARE WEAPONS MANUFACTURERS FARING IN THE WAR? World Policy Institute 12/17/01.
19. Jonathan Beaty and S. C. Gwynne, The Outlaw Bank (New York: Random House 1993), 294.
20. R. T. Naylor, Hot Money and the Politics of Debt (New York: Simon and Schuster 1987), 245.
21. John Cooley, Unholy Wars (London: Pluto Press 2000), 71f.
22. Beaty and Gwynne, The Outlaw Bank, 79.
23. Peter Dale Scott and Jonathan Marshall, Cocaine Politics (Berkeley: University of California Press 1991), 72f, 79.
24. Beaty and Gwynne, The Outlaw Bank, xxiv, 133, 140.
25. "US Plans Corporate Structure to Run Iraq's Oil Industry," Quicken 4/25/03.
26. Kathleen Day, "U.S. Seizes $1.4 Billion In Frozen Iraqi Assets," The Washington Post 3/21/03.
27. H. C. Englebrecht and F. C. Hanighen, Merchants of Death (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company 1934), 144.
28. Daniel Yergin, The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, & Power (New York: Touchstone Press 1991), 185.
29. Plan to Fight Al Qaeda Approved Week Before 9/11, Reuters 8/4/02); see also Michael Elliott, "They Had A Plan," TIME Magazine 8/4/02 (Abstract).
30. Central Asia pipeline deal signed, BBC 12/27/02.
31. Testimony by John J. Maresca 2/12/98.
32. Ralph Peters, "Constant Conflict," Parameters Summer 1997.
33. Hugh Dougherty, "War may not be over in our lifetime, warns Cheney" Irish Examiner 10/22/01.
34. David E. Sanger, "President Says Military Phase in Iraq Has Ended," New York Times 5/2/03 (copy).
35. Yergin, The Prize, 170ff.
36. Charles Higham, Trading With the Enemy (New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc. 1983), 80f.
37. Yergin, The Prize, 404.
38. John K. Cooley, Unholy Wars 2nd Edition (London: Pluto Press 2000) 113, 178; see also Richard Labeviere, Dollars for Terror (New York: Algora Press 2000), 95f et passim.
39. R. T. Naylor, Hot Money and the Politics of Debt (New York: Simon and Schuster 1987), 49f.
40. Beaty and Gwynne, The Outlaw Bank, 54.
41. James Kirkup, "U.S., U.K. Waged War on Iraq Because of Oil, Blair Adviser Says," Bloomberg.com, 5/1/03.
42. Exxon Mobil profit more than triples, MSNBC 5/1/03 (Reuters); Saeed Shah and Philip Thornton, "Iraq war helps BP gush to record £2.3bn profit," The Independent (UK) 4/30/00; Alex Lawler, "Shell 1st-Qtr Profit Rises as War Boosted Oil Price," Bloomberg.com 5/2/03.
43. Alfred W. McCoy, The Politics of Heroin (New York: Lawrence Hill Books 1991), 18f.
44. Naylor, Hot Money 184ff.
45. Peter Andreas and Collette Youngers, "'Busting' the Andean Cocaine Industry," World Policy Journal Summer 1989, 536ff.
46. Ed Rippy, Guns and Drugs: The CIA's Admissions.
47. B. Raman, "Pakistan's Noriegas," South Asia Analysis Group 11/4/01.
48. Cooley, Unholy Wars, 19.
49. McCoy, The Politics of Heroin, 440f, 447.
50. Labeviere, Dollars For Terror, 36.
51. Amnesty International, Grave abuses in the name of religion 11/12/96.
52. Labeviere, Dollars For Terror, 21f; see also Michael Springman, interview with Canadian Broadcasting Corporation 1/19/02.
53. Labeviere, Dollars For Terror, 104.
54. Ibid., 6.
55. Michel Chossudovsky, War and Globalisation: The Truth Behind September 11 (Ottowa: Monetary Reform Magazine 2002), 29f.
56. Cooley, Unholy Wars, 64,122.
57. Chossudovsky, War and Globalisation, 40-47.
58. Labeviere, Dollars For Terror, 22,99,107f.
59. Le Figaro, Les liaisons dangereuses de Ben Laden et la CIA 10/31/01. Available by research request from Le Figaro.
60. James Bamford, Body of Secrets (New York: Anchor Books, 2002), 614f.
61. Gerth and Van Natta, In Tough Times.
62. Labeviere, Dollars For Terror, 56.
63. Barbara Hatch Rosenberg, Analysis of the Anthrax Attacks.
64. Scott and Marshall, Cocaine Politics 101f; see also Daniel Hopsicker, Barry and 'the boys' (Eugene, OR: Mad Cow Press 2001), 332.
65. The National Security Archive, War in Colombia: Guerrillas, Drugs and Human Rights in U.S.-Colombia Policy, 1988-2002.
66. Peter Dale Scott, Drugs, Oil, and War (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc. 2003), 39.
67. Ibid., 65.
68. Eric Schmitt, "US-Philippine Command May Signal War's Next Phase," The New York Times 1/16/02 (Abstract); see also "US Advisers Train Filipino Troops," Associated Press 10/23/01; Sol Jose Vanzi, US ADVISERS JOINING PHIL TROOPS ON BASILAN, newsflash.org 1/7/02.
69. http://history1900s.about.com/library/holocaust/aa090399.htm; see also http://www.zum.de/whkmla/apeur/narratives/WW2earlyyears.html.
70. Yergin, The Prize 305.
71. Robert Stinnett, Day of Deceit (New York: Touchstone 2000), 22, 37f, 121, 150, 173ff, 194ff.
72. Higham, Trading With the Enemy, 163f, 216.
73. Doug Valentine and Elton Manzione, "The Raid on Hon Me," The National Reporter, Spring 1987, p. 22.
75. Zbigniew Brzezinski, The Grand Chessboard (New York: Basic Books 1997), 24f, 31, 35f, 52, 195.
76. Project For the New American Century (1997), Statement of Principles; see also Rebuilding America's Defenses.
77. US planned for attack on al-Qaida, MSNBC 5/16/02; see also Michael Elliott, "They Had a Plan," TIME 8/4/02 (Abstract).
78. Jonathan Steele, Ewen MacAskill, Richard Norton-Taylor and Ed Harriman, Threat of US strikes passed to Taliban weeks before NY attack, Guardian (UK) 9/22/01.
79. Nafeez Ahmed, The War on Freedom (Joshua Tree, Ca: Tree of Life Publications 2002), 82f; see also "Terrorist Plan to Use Planes as Weapons Dates to 1995," Public Education Center.
80. Greg Palast, The Best Democracy Money Can Buy (New York: Penguin Putnam Inc. 2003), 98f.
81. James Vicini, Agent Complains FBI Covered Up Moussaoui Case, Reuters 5/24/02 (Copy); see also James Risen and David Johnston, "Agent Complaints Lead FBI Director to Ask for Inquiry," The New York Times 5/23/02 (Abstract); James Risen, "FBI Agent Says Superior Altered Report, Foiling Inquiry," The New York Times 5/25/02 (Copy).
82. Le Matin, Bush veut empecher Ben Laden de parler 11/18/01.
83. Daniel Hopsicker, "FBI Cover-up of Mohamed Atta's Last Days," MadCowMorningNews 4/18/02.
84. Daniel Hopsicker, "Four More 9/11 Terrorists Linked to Rudi Dekker's Flight Schools," MadCowMorningNews 2/7/03.
85. Daniel Hopsicker, "Terror Flight School Owner Implicated in 'Protected' Drug Trafficking Ring," MadCowMorningNews 11/14/02.
86. Daniel Hopsicker, "Key Witness 'Disappears' in Venice, Fl.," MadCowMorningNews 8/29/02; see also "Atta, American Girlfriend in Wild Drug and Booze Party in Key West," 9/27/02.
87. Daniel Hopsicker, "Venice Airport Used for Covert Ops," MadCowMorningNews 9/9/02; see also "Venice Flight School Linked to CIA" 2/25/02.
88. Hopsicker, Key Witness 'Disappears.'
89. Michel Chossudovsky, New Revelations on 9-11; see also Manoj Joshi, "India helped FBI trace ISI-terrorist links," The Times of India 10/9/01.
90. Torcuil Crichton, "Britain warned US to expect September 11 al-Qaeda hijackings," The Sunday Herald 5/19/02.
91. John K. Cooley, "The U.S. ignored foreign warnings, too," The International Herald Tribune 5/21/02.
92. Carl Cameron, "Clues Alerted White House to Potential Attacks," Fox News 5/17/02; see also Russia Gave 'Clear Warning', Agence France Presse 9/16/01, "Izvestia Story," From the Wilderness 3/31/02.
93. Paul Thompson, They Tried To Warn Us, Center for Cooperative Research 1/30/03.
94. NPR, Morning Edition 9/11/01. The statement cited is 1 hour, 5 minutes, 40 seconds from the start. Russ Kick has archived the statement.
95. Higham, Trading With the Enemy, 217.
96. Ashcroft Flying High, CBS News 7/26/01.
97. Judge, The Strategy of Tension.
98. Phillip Matier and Andrew Ross, "Willie Brown got low-key early warning about air travel," SF Chronicle 9/12/01.
99. Michel Hirsch, "'We've Hit the Targets'" Newsweek 9/13/01.